In the market for… macadamias

first_imgPrices of Ludlow’s Peter Cook delivers a delicious Rye-Wheat, Macadamia and Sultana Bread for the third and final part of our special macadamia bread recipes, devised by three UK artisan bakers in association with The South African Growers’ Association (see British Baker, 14 August pg 19 and 28 August, pg 16).Rye-Wheat, Macadamia and Sultana BreadBy Peter Cook, Prices of LudlowTo make 10 small loaves, or six large or approximately 80-90 small rollsIngredientsWhite sponge (or fermented dough from previous day)750gStrong white flour1kgLight rye flour1kgWarm water1,400mlYeast40gSalt40g (50g if using saltless sponge)Vegetable oil50mlMacadamia nuts400gSultanas400gMethod1. Mix the strong white flour, rye flour, water, yeast, salt and sponge or fermented dough from previous day to form a dough.2. After the mix has come together, add the vegetable oil, then gently mix in the nuts and sultanas.3. Bulk prove for an hour in a warm, draught-free place.4. Just as the surface of the dough is beginning to crack, scale it. Leave them for short, intermediate proof of approximately 15 minutes5. As soon as they are soft enough, mould into the “torpedo” shape. Flatten dough before tucking in the sides to make a boat-like shape. Fold the sides together before rolling on the board to seal the dough.6. If possible, arrange on couche cloths before leaving for a final proof of about 45 minutes.7. Move them to the oven just as the fine surface-cracking is beginning to show. Dust with flour and slash three diagonal cuts across their backs or one long slash down their length.8. Bake at 220-225°C for 25-35 minutes.l Note: To make small rolls, use approximately 50g portions and mould in the same way.last_img read more

Scanomat smells the coffee

first_imgNew firm Scanomat UK has launched two Venezia coffee machines that can brew any type of coffee, from espresso to cappuccino, as well as hot chocolate, and hot water for tea.The Scanomat Venezia Bean to Cup hybrid coffee machine the B2Ci model offers fresh ground coffee, backed up with a soluble option. Operators can choose either one or two grinders and up to four soluble canisters. It can produce up to six cups in 20 seconds. Water from the built-in five-litre water tank is heated on demand.Scanomat Venezia’s instant coffee machine has the option of a fresh milk system. It provides high-volume freshly brewed drinks.last_img

Twiddle Welcomes Zebulon Bowles, Covers Led Zeppelin In Boulder [Full Audio]

first_imgTwiddle closed out their two-night sold-out run at the Boulder Theater on Saturday, February 11th, joined again by the talented openers Aqueous.Aqueous’ set was a powerful start to night, as the four-piece from Buffalo, NY drove through composed originals that pulled from a plethora of jam influences. There was the prog-rock of Umphrey’s McGee, the trance-jams of the Disco Biscuits, the feel-good guitar harmonies of Moe, even glitched-out moments of fusion reminiscent of acts like Snarky Puppy. Front man Mike Gantzer’s tasteful guitar solos and smooth vocals dominated the set, but it was guitarist Dave Loss that stepped in for lead vocals on a speedy cover of the Grateful Dead’s “Bertha” that dropped back into the catchy original “Kitty Chaser” to end the set.By the time Twiddle took the stage, the young crowd had filed in to capacity and the historic theater was alive with energy. The band has risen through the jam ranks quickly, and even 2000 miles from their Vermont home a faithful family of “frends” sang the words to most every tune.Twiddle’s first set, and the show in general, was a refreshing throw back to the band’s older material. The music had a focus on jazzy composition and open improvisation, as opposed to the more accessible pop-reggae of their latest release Plump.Mihali Savoulidis got his moments to croon on cuts like “Daydream Farmer” and “Every Soul,” but it was the mathy shreds and extended explorations on instrumentals like “Brick of Barley,” “Doinkinboink!!!” and the new track “Blunderbuss” that saw the band at their best. Zebulon Bowles of Hot Buttered Rum joined on violin for two tunes, including “Latin Twang” to end the second set. The band encored with the only cover of the night, the reggae-tinged Led Zeppelin tune “D’Yer Maker.”You can stream the full audio of Twiddle’s show below, courtesy of taper The Space Fish.Check out some videos of Twiddle’s set, below, as well as full setlists for both artists. Setlist: Aqueous | Boulder Theater | Boulder, CO | 2/11/17Set: Don’t Do It, Random Company, Kitty Chaser -> Bertha -> Kitty ChaserSetlist: Twiddle | Boulder Theater | Boulder, CO | 2/11/17Set 1: Syncopated Healing, Brown Chicken Brown Cow, Daydream Farmer, Brick Of BarleySet 2: Blunderbuss, Every Soul, Zazu’s Flight, Dusk ‘Til Dawn, Doinkinbonk!!!, Latin TangEncore: D’Yer Makerlast_img read more

PREMIERE: Cory Wong Releases Collab With Ripe’s Robbie Wulfsohn Off Upcoming New Album

first_imgCory Wong is quickly becoming one of our favorite guitarists in the live music scene. A frequent collaborator with fan-favorite minimalist funk ensemble, Vulfpeck, Wong is known for his pristine and rhythmically oriented lead guitar style, his animated performances, and his charming onstage demeanor. Outside of Vulfpeck, the guitarist keeps himself busy, recently announcing that he’ll release his sophomore solo album, The Optimist.The Optimist features a wide range of collaborators, including friend and fellow Vulfpeck collaborator Antwaun Stanley, European star musicians like Marti Fischer and KATIS, and Prince‘s legendary horn section, The Hornheads. The album also contains a guest appearance from Ripe frontman Robbie Wulfsohn, who offers his strong vocals on the brand-new single “Light As Anything”. Premiered by Live For Live Music today, “Light As Anything” marks the second single and the first lyrical single released to fans as they eagerly await The Optimist‘s August 17th arrival date.“Light As Anything” is a distinctly catchy tune, with a percussive and tight groove that carries across the song. Buoyed by Wulfsohn’s bright voice and the song’s feel-good lyrics, the song has an infectious positive energy, recalling the new album’s optimistic name. Midway through the song, “Light As Anything” lands in an initially psychedelic bridge, offering the band the opportunity to become a little more expansive, before Wulfsohn picks up where he left off with his crisp, happy-go-lucky vocals.As Cory Wong explained to Live For Live Music in a statement,This was a really fun tune for me to put together because it’s a tune I’ve had floating in my head for about a year now; I finally found the right way to put it together and the right singer to collaborate with for it. It started as a guitar riff with a melodic hook that wouldn’t leave my mind for a month. I had the rhythm section part all figured out in my head, and a few melodic ideas, but I got stuck.I figured that the best way to get it finished was out of an imaginary deadline. So I booked a recording session and recorded the rhythm section tracks, knowing that I would do the vocal overdub later. Robbie was the first person that popped into my head as a vocalist/collaborator, because I had just finished producing the record for his band, Ripe. He’s got such a unique voice that might first be thought of as a “rock” style voice due to the raspy nature of his sound, but his tone works so great for pop and funk music as well.His lyrics are very conceptual and have interesting twists and abstraction to them that really appeal to me, so I was excited when I got the text back saying, “Yeah man, I’m down for whatever! Let’s do it!” I sent him the rhythm-section tracks along with some melodic ideas and lyrical concepts, and he ran with it. We sent voice memos back and forth for a week honing in on the lyrics and melody, and then met up in L.A. to record the vocals on green screen, so I could overlay him on the video I did from the session. It was funny because he’d been working on this song for a few weeks at that point, but when I showed him the video from the session, he said, “Wait, what?! That’s two drummers?! I had no idea!”It’s one of the first songs I recorded with the “palindrum” setup, which has a mirror image drumset played by two players, one right-handed (Steve Goold) and one left-handed (Petar Janjic). I feel like they worked together well to make it really feel like one kit with a fatter and wider groove. I love musical and production experiments like this because it really drives the creative energy for me—not only as an artist but also as a player in the room while we’re recording. Just when it felt like we had it figured out, we were done with the song. It felt very natural.You can check out the Live For Live Music premiere of Cory Wong’s “Light As Anything” featuring Robbie Wulfsohn below. The song will appear on Wong’s upcoming sophomore solo album, The Optimist, which is due out on August 17th. If you like what you hear, you can pre-order the new album on Cory Wong’s website, with a limited run of LP pressings available.Cory Wong ft. Robbie Wulfsohn – “Light As Anything” Check out a list of Cory Wong’s upcoming tour dates below.Cory Wong Upcoming Tour Dates:Aug. 14 – Vienna, VA – Jammin JavaAug. 15 – Charlottesville, VA – The SouthernAug. 16 – Virginia Beach, VA – Shaka’s LiveAug. 17 – Pittsboro, NC – The BIG What?Aug. 18 – Asheville, NC – Taproom at Sierra NevadaAug. 19 – Knoxville, TN – The Concourse (at The International)Aug. 21 – Atlanta, GA – Aisle 5Aug. 23 – Nashville, TN – City WineryAug. 24 – Indianapolis, IN – HI-FI IndyAug. 25 – Fort Wayne, IN – Two EE’s WineryOct. 7 – Madrid, Spain – Sala ClamoresOct. 10 – Cologne, Germany – Club Bahnhof EhrenfeldOct. 11 – Berlin, Germany – GretchenOct. 13 – Den Haag, Netherlands – Mondriaan Jazz FestivalOct. 14 – Stockholm, Sweden – Stockholm Jazz FestivalOct. 16 – Amsterdam, Netherlands – BitterzoetOct. 17 – Rotterdam, Netherlands – BIRDOct. 19 – Zurich, Switzerland – MoodsOct. 20 – Fribourg, Switzerland – La SpiraleOct. 21 – Milan, Italy – Blue NoteOct. 25 – Live Oak, FL – Suwannee HulaweenNov. 17 – Denver, CO – Ogden TheatreView All Tour Dateslast_img read more

Best American picks Harvard Review selections

first_imgFor the ninth time in the last decade, works first published in Harvard Review have been chosen for inclusion in the highly selective Best American series.The selections include two essays that appeared in issue 39 and a short story taken from issue 38. Meenakshi Gigi Venugopal’s essay “Grieving” is the true story of her husband’s reaction to being denied tenure at the university where he teaches.“It was obviously metaphorical for her,” Harvard Review editor Christina Thompson said of the essay’s title. “Grieving is the technical term for appealing a tenure decision, but also her husband was grief-stricken by the decision because his whole identity was tied up with his teaching. The decision was eventually reversed, but the essay describes in detail what a painful process it was for him.”The second essay selected – “Unprepared” by Jerald Walker – opens with a scene of an African-American teen who is propositioned by an older man, setting off a series of musings about race and serial killers. A third essay, “All the Words I Knew,” by Yale undergraduate Elisa Gonzalez, which appeared in issue 38, was selected for the “Notable” category of Best American Essays.The story selected for Best American Short Stories, “The Call of Blood” by Jess Row, is Row’s second story published in Harvard Review, and his second to be included in the Best American series. An earlier story, “Heaven Lake,” from issue 22, was selected for the 2003 edition of the series.The Best American series has been published since 1915 as a showcase for the year’s finest poetry, short stories, and essays. The three pieces selected from Harvard Review are the most the journal has ever had selected in a single year, and are a tribute to Thompson’s ability to identify material from the thousands of submissions the journal receives annually.last_img read more

Improvements in U.S. diet lower premature deaths

first_imgTwo new studies from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health shed light on critical dietary issues facing Americans. One study showed that while recent improvements in the U.S. diet have helped reduce disease and premature death, the overall American diet is still poor. Another, which analyzed interventions to reduce childhood obesity, found three that would save more in health care costs than they would cost to implement.Both studies will be published November 2, 2015 in the November issue of Health Affairs.In the U.S. diet study, researchers analyzed how changes in dietary quality from 1999-2012 impacted disease and premature death. They examined dietary quality among 33,885 U.S. adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using a measure called the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010. To see how this dietary quality would impact disease and mortality, they used information from two long-running studies, the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, involving roughly 173,000 people.They found that healthier eating habits cumulatively prevented 1.1 million premature deaths over the 14 years, and the difference in dietary quality between 1999 and 2012 resulted in 12.6% fewer type 2 diabetes cases, 8.6% fewer cardiovascular disease cases, and 1.3% fewer cancer cases.Notably, the researchers found that it only took small improvements in dietary quality to substantially reduce disease burden, which is a measure of both fatal and non-fatal loss of health due to disease. Read Full Storylast_img read more

Scarlett Strallen Joins A Gentleman’s Guide on Broadway

first_img Related Shows Show Closed This production ended its run on Jan. 17, 2016 Strallen has previously been seen on the Great White Way in the title role in Mary Poppins. She played Mary Poppins twice in the West End, the second time stepping in for O’Hare. Strallen received Olivier nods for her performances in HMS Pinafore and Singin in the Rain. Other theater credits include A Chorus Line, Candide, Passion, The Music Man and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. View Comments Written by Robert L. Freedman and Steven Lutvak, A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder follows Monty Navarro, a long-lost member of a noble family who stands to become the next Earl of Highhurst—if he can eliminate the eight other relatives (all played by Jefferson Mays) who precede him in line for the title. The tuner received four 2014 Tony Awards, including Best Musical. Additional cast members include Jeff Kready, Catherine Walker and Carole Shelley. A Gentleman’s Guide to Love & Murder U.K. stage favorite Scarlett Strallen returns to Broadway on February 10 in A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder. She assumes the role of Sibella, taking over for Lisa O’Hare, who originated the part in the Tony-winning tuner at the Walter Kerr Theatre.last_img read more

Odds & Ends: Kristin Chenoweth’s Dream Wicked Movie Cast & More

first_img View Comments Kristin Chenoweth Matthew Morrison Joins Actors Fund BenefitSome new names have joined the Actors Fund benefit reading of Proud of Us and Other Short Plays by Wesley Taylor. Matthew Morrison, Julie Klausner and Rebecca Naomi Jones are now on board, filling in for the previously announced Laura Benanti, Christian Borle and Nicolette Robinson. Additional performers on tap include Skylar Astin, Carolee Carmello, Will Swenson, Michael Urie and Raven Symoné. Tony winner Billy Porter will direct the one-night-only event, which will take place on November 14 at New World Stages.Michael Kors Is Making Roundabout FashionableThe Stephen Sondheim Theatre is about to get extra swanky. Fashion titan Michael Kors and husband Lance Le Pere have donated $1.5 million to the Roundabout Theatre Company’s Musical Theatre Fund, and in turn, RTC will name the Broadway theater’s VIP Patron’s Lounge after them. The appropriately named Michael Kors and Lance Le Pere Lounge is expected to open next year. The Sondheim Theatre is currently home to Beautiful: The Carole King Musical.P.S. Smash reunion! Tony nominees Megan Hilty and Brian d’Arcy James will perform with the New York Pops on October 22 at the Tilles Center for the Performing Arts’ benefit gala. The Long Island event will honor LIU Post alumni Lisa and Rob Arning. Daveed Diggs Is a Noodle, NowAre there any TV shows that Daveed Diggs isn’t on? The Hamilton Tony winner is joining Mr. Noodle’s family on Sesame Street’s upcoming season. The former Lafayette/Jefferson will play one of Mr. Noodle’s brothers as part of the reimagined “Elmo’s World” segments. Diggs is the latest Tony winner to become a Noodle: Mr. Noodle himself Bill Irwin won a Tony for the decidedly not-kid-friendly Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, and his relatives include Kristin Chenoweth, Michael Jeter and Sarah Jones. The new season of the kids’ series will premiere on HBO in January 2017.David Hyde Pierce Recalls His Past with BetteThe Broadway-bound David Hyde Pierce stopped by Live with Kelly to discuss his upcoming gig: “A very little-known show called Hello, Dolly! with an unknown actress Bette Midler.” The Tony and Emmy winner co-starred with Midler in the film Isn’t She Great, and soon, they’ll reunite for the highly-anticipated revival. Pierce also discussed his current off-Broadway bow in The Life, which he says is about “dating, astrology, life and death” (that about covers it) at Playwrights Horizons. Check out the clip below. Here’s a quick roundup of stories you may have missed today. Kristin Chenoweth Dreamcasts Wicked MovieThere’s something about Wicked movie gossip that pairs so well with the Watch What Happens Live playhouse. Self-proclaimed pocket diva and Mistress of All Evil Kristin Chenoweth stopped by on October 17, and for the third time, talked about the inevitable film adaptation. She’s still open to playing Glinda with her former co-star Idina Menzel, but has a few recommendations if they go in another direction. Check out her picks below.last_img read more

Mother’s Day spending in 2017

first_imgAccording to the National Retail Federation’s 2017  survey, shoppers are expected to spend an average of $186.39 on Mom this year. Here’s how they’ll spend it. continue reading » 5SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img

Study: First flu wave in 1918 was vaccine for some

first_imgOct 2, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – In the influenza pandemic of 1918, those who got sick in the first wave of illness were up to 94% less likely to fall ill when the second and much more severe wave struck, according to a new analysis of historical data.The authors, led by historian John M. Barry, sifted data mostly from US Army camps, along with some from the British navy and British cities, to conclude that infection in the first wave acted like a vaccine, conferring immunity that protected people when the second wave arrived. Barry wrote the 2004 book The Great Influenza, a chronicle of the pandemic.Their analysis “strongly points to cross-protection between outbreaks of respiratory illness during spring and early summer of 1918 and the influenza pandemic wave in the fall of 1918. The cross-protection effect was estimated to range from 35% to 94% for clinical illness and from 56% to 89% for mortality,” says the report, published online by the Journal of Infectious Diseases.The authors say their findings suggest that when novel flu viruses emerge and initially cause a mild wave of illness, public health authorities should think twice before taking aggressive steps to limit exposure, since people infected with the virus might benefit later on if the virus grows more virulent and triggers another wave of cases.Besides Barry, the authors are Cecile Viboud of the Fogarty International Center in Bethesda, Md., and Lone Simonsen of George Washington University in Washington, DC.The pandemic of 1918-19 occurred in three waves: a mild one in the spring or summer of 1918 (depending on location), a much more severe one in the fall, and a less severe one in the winter and spring of 1919, the authors note. The first wave began in March 1918 in the US Army and spread quickly through training camps and on to some civilian communities, and then faded by June. This initial wave came later in Europe, peaking in June and July, the report notes.US Army records show that 11.8% of all personnel at all camps were hospitalized for respiratory illness in the spring wave from March through May, compared with 27.5% during the fall wave, the report says.Multiple tests of hypothesisThe authors used several approaches to test the hypothesis of cross-protection. One was to examine detailed data available from five US Army camps on flu cases and deaths in seasoned troops—defined as those who had been in the Army at least 1 month—and new recruits during the second wave. New recruits were considered less likely to have been exposed in the first wave, because the spring epidemic was much larger in the army than in civilian communities. In fact, in only a few civilian areas was the spring wave large enough to be recognized as an epidemic at the time, the report says.Using these data, the investigators estimated that at two of the camps, Camp Grant and Columbus Barracks, seasoned troops were, respectively, 56% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51% to 61%) and 89% (95% CI, 66% to 97%) less likely to die in the second wave, compared with new recruits. For the other camps, the seasoned troops, as compared with new recruits, had protection against clinical illness estimated at 94% (95% CI, 90% to 97%) for Fort McDowell, 49% for Camp Pike (95% CI, 48% to 51%), and 86% (95% CI, 84% to 87%) for Camp Lee.The investigators acknowledge that some of the seasoned troops could have escaped the spring wave of illness and that some of the new recruits might have been exposed to the flu as civilians. But the resulting bias in their estimates would go against showing a protective effect, resulting in an underestimation rather than an overestimation of the true benefits, they write.The authors also found useful data on two regiments of seasoned troops who were trained at Camp Dodge in the fall of 1918; one regiment had been exposed to the spring wave while stationed in Hawaii, and the other had escaped it while in Alaska. Of those who had been exposed in the spring, 6.6% (198 of an estimated 3,000 troops) contracted flu in the fall. In the regiment that had been in Alaska, 48.5% (1,455 of an estimated 3,000) became sick in the fall. In this case, the protective effect of prior exposure was estimated at 86% (95% confidence interval, 84% to 88%).Data from the British Grand Fleet offered another opportunity for assessing cross-protection. A 1919 report in a medical journal supplied the numbers of sailors, out of the fleet total of 90,000, who were sick during each of the two waves and during both waves. From these numbers, the authors estimated that those who were sick in the spring had 72% protection (95% CI, 68% to 76%) against the fall wave.A British government report on flu cases in 12 civilian communities with a total population of 24,706 provided still another pathway for testing the hypothesis. In this population, 11.6%, or 2,863 people, were hit by the first wave. The authors estimated that these people gained 35% protection (95% CI, 27% to 43%) against the second wave, compared with those who escaped the earlier wave.However, using data from the same report, the investigators concluded that illness during either the first or the second wave did not seem to confer protection against the third wave in the winter.But overall, the authors conclude, illness in the first wave yielded about as much protection against the second wave as modern flu vaccines, which are about 70% to 90% effective in healthy adults. The finding of cross-protection matches the impressions of contemporary US Army epidemiologists, they note.Viral evolution and cross-protectionBarry and colleagues write that the simplest explanation of their findings is that the spring and fall waves of the pandemic were caused by “sequential variants” of the influenza A/H1N1 virus. The spring virus might not have been fully adapted to humans, they say, since it apparently didn’t spread effectively in civilian communities. By fall, it had evolved into a fully human-adapted and more virulent form.But there is at least one other possible explanation: that nearly identical viruses circulated during both waves, but respiratory bacterial pathogens exacerbated the disease in the fall.The authors suggest that their findings may help explain why pandemic mortality rates in the fall of 1918 varied almost fourfold among US cities. Though recent studies suggest that these differences can be largely explained by differences in nonpharmaceutical interventions, “we propose that geographical differences in population immunity acquired during the first wave could have contributed to the observed variation during the second wave,” they write.The investigators see at least two policy implications in their findings. One is that timely surveillance is crucial for learning the transmissibility, virulence, and age-group impact of influenza in the early stages of a pandemic.”Second, if indeed a mild first wave is documented, the benefits of cross-protection during future waves should be considered before implementing public health interventions designed to limit exposure,” they write.Other experts impressedSeveral other infectious disease experts said they were impressed with the study and found it convincing, though one military medical historian saw problems with some details of the data presented.”I think you have to say they make a strong circumstantial case,” said Richard J. Hatchett, MD, of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), who has studied the effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions in the 1918 pandemic.”It’s really amazing that we can go back after almost 100 years and get any useful data on an epidemic that occurred in 1918,” said Hatchett, who is an associate director of emergency preparedness in the NIAID’s Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation.He said the evidence of a sizable spring epidemic in cramped Army camps but only a minor one in civilian communities suggests that initially the virus was not well-adapted for human-to-human transmission and that the camps, with their continual influx of new recruits, may have served to incubate and sustain the virus until it became more transmissible and much more lethal.”If this were the case, the fall pandemic would’ve been a direct consequence of the war and social arrangements that allowed this inefficient virus to spread through the population. There’s probably a useful lesson in that experience, if that speculative observation were proved,” he said.”I’m not sure there is any direct application of the results of this paper to current pandemic planning,” Hatchett said. He added, however, “I think their [the authors’] recommendation of not implementing aggressive nonpharmaceutical interventions in a mild pandemic is in line with what the government is currently recommending.” He referred to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, which link interventions to a pandemic severity index.Dr. Christophe Fraser, an infectious disease epidemiologist at Imperial College London, said Barry and colleagues’ results are in line with his own findings in a study that has not yet been published.”We have analyzed some previously unpublished data from the USA in 1918, and our conclusions are very concordant with Dr. Barry and collaborators’ work, and even go a bit further,” Fraser told CIDRAP News by e-mail.He also commented, “This issue, of whether the population was protected by exposure to a limited spring epidemic of flu, is rather important for the current debate as the fall wave of 1918 is being used as one of the baseline scenarios for pandemic preparedness. If a significant proportion of the population were actually immune, then that means it’s not a good baseline to plan around.”Fraser said Barry and colleagues’ findings—combined with certain other evidence, such as a recent report that Scandinavian countries had a major spring epidemic—suggest that that fall wave of 1918 would have been worse without the protective effective of the earlier epidemic.”This is not as outlandish as it may seem,” he wrote. “Indeed one of the big discoveries from the historical record, now widely replicated, is that the 1918 fall wave virus was not very infectious. It was virulent, even lethal in many cases, but not easy to transmit compared to many other common viruses.”Some discrepancies seenCarol R. Byerly, PhD, a historian at the University of Colorado and author of the 2005 book Fever of War: The Influenza Epidemic in the US Army during World War I, said that some Army physicians at the time had a sense that soldiers who were sickened in the spring of 1918 may have had some immunity when the second wave of flu arrived in the fall. But, while making clear she is not an epidemiologist, she said she saw some flaws in the data.For a few examples, she said:The report says that the Army conducted disease surveillance at 37 of 39 training camps, but the Medical Department provided detailed information on at least 40 camps, all of which did surveillance.The authors say that five Army camps provided detailed data for illnesses and deaths as a function of length of time in service, but she knows of at least eight monographs on the experiences at individual camps.Army medical officers’ definition of “seasoned” recruits varied in different studies, so it is inaccurate to state that the criterion was clearly defined as just 1 month of service. Most studies used 3 or 4 months.Whereas the report says Army documents show that 475,000 men had respiratory illness in 1918, the actual figure War Department records show for all hospitalizations for respiratory illness in 1918 is 756,676.”I am therefore concerned about the construction of a statistical analysis on top of such a poorly defined database,” Byerly said.Reconsidering assumptionsAnother disease expert, Michael T. Osterholm, PhD, MPH, said he found the study “quite convincing,” adding, “I think it adds another piece to our understanding of what happened” in 1918.The results suggest a possible need to rethink some assumptions about pandemics, which by definition involve viruses to which the population has no immunity, said Osterholm, who is director of the University of Minnesota Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, publisher of CIDRAP News.”If we have wave 1 and it’s relatively mild, and a number of people are exposed to that virus, that may actually be a very positive thing relative to a second wave in which the disease is much more severe,” he said. “That could mean a lot of infection in a first wave is actually a good thing, with much of the world not having a vaccine.”But he added, “This is all theoretical. . . . As to whether there are any policy decisions we should make on the basis of this, I think at this point it’s just unclear.””I think the point it demonstrates very clearly is that pandemic waves may act very differently, in large part due to the virulence of the virus and the subsequent immunity that may develop,” Osterholm said.Barry JM, Viboud C, Simonsen L. Cross-protection between successive waves of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic: epidemiological evidence from US Army camps and from Britain. J Infect Dis 2008 Nov 15;198 (early online publication) [Abstract]last_img read more