What Orwell’s ‘1984’ tells us about today’s world, 70 years after…

first_img The Anatomy of Fear Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Please enter your name here TAGS1984George OrwellThe Conversation Previous articleBreaking News: Highway Patrol arrests Apopka man for attempted murder of TrooperNext articleWhat is the summer solstice? An astronomer explains Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR By Stephen Groening, University of WashingtonSeventy years ago, Eric Blair, writing under a pseudonym George Orwell, published “1984,” now generally considered a classic of dystopian fiction.The novel tells the story of Winston Smith, a hapless middle-aged bureaucrat who lives in Oceania, where he is governed by constant surveillance. Even though there are no laws, there is a police force, the “Thought Police,” and the constant reminders, on posters, that “Big Brother Is Watching You.”Smith works at the Ministry of Truth, and his job is to rewrite the reports in newspapers of the past to conform with the present reality. Smith lives in a constant state of uncertainty; he is not sure the year is in fact 1984.Although the official account is that Oceania has always been at war with Eurasia, Smith is quite sure he remembers that just a few years ago they had been at war with Eastasia, who has now been proclaimed their constant and loyal ally. The society portrayed in “1984” is one in which social control is exercised through disinformation and surveillance.As a scholar of television and screen culture, I argue that the techniques and technologies described in the novel are very much present in today’s world.‘1984’ as historyOne of the key technologies of surveillance in the novel is the “telescreen,” a device very much like our own television.The telescreen displays a single channel of news, propaganda and wellness programming. It differs from our own television in two crucial respects: It is impossible to turn off and the screen also watches its viewers.The telescreen is television and surveillance camera in one. In the novel, the character Smith is never sure if he is being actively monitored through the telescreen.A publicity photo on the set of the CBS anthology television series ‘Studio One’ depicts a presentation of George Orwell’s ‘1984.’CBS TelevisionOrwell’s telescreen was based in the technologies of television pioneered prior to World War II and could hardly be seen as science fiction. In the 1930s Germany had a working videophone system in place, and television programs were already being broadcast in parts of the United States, Great Britain and France.Past, present and futureThe dominant reading of “1984” has been that it was a dire prediction of what could be. In the words of Italian essayist Umberto Eco, “at least three-quarters of what Orwell narrates is not negative utopia, but history.”Additionally, scholars have also remarked how clearly “1984” describes the present.In 1949, when the novel was written, Americans watched on average four and a half hours of television a day; in 2009, almost twice that. In 2017, television watching was slightly down, to eight hours, more time than we spent asleep.In the U.S. the information transmitted over television screens came to constitute a dominant portion of people’s social and psychological lives.‘1984’ as present dayIn the year 1984, however, there was much self-congratulatory coverage in the U.S. that the dystopia of the novel had not been realized. But media studies scholar Mark Miller argued how the famous slogan from the book, “Big Brother Is Watching You” had been turned to “Big Brother is you, watching” television.Miller argued that television in the United States teaches a different kind of conformity than that portrayed in the novel. In the novel, the telescreen is used to produce conformity to the Party. In Miller’s argument, television produces conformity to a system of rapacious consumption – through advertising as well as a focus on the rich and famous. It also promotes endless productivity, through messages regarding the meaning of success and the virtues of hard work.Television has a profound effect on its viewers.Andrey_PopovMany viewers conform by measuring themselves against what they see on television, such as dress, relationships and conduct. In Miller’s words, television has “set the standard of habitual self-scrutiny.”The kind of paranoid worry possessed by Smith in the novel – that any false move or false thought will bring the thought police – instead manifests in television viewers that Miller describes as an “inert watchfulness.” In other words, viewers watch themselves to make sure they conform to those others they see on the screen.This inert watchfulness can exist because television allows viewers to watch strangers without being seen. Scholar Joshua Meyrowitz has shown that the kinds of programming which dominate U.S television – news, sitcoms, dramas – have normalized looking into the private lives of others.Controlling behaviorAlongside the steady rise of “reality TV,” beginning in the ‘60s with “Candid Camera,” “An American Family,” “Real People,” “Cops” and “The Real World,” television has also contributed to the acceptance of a kind of video surveillance.For example, it might seem just clever marketing that one of the longest-running and most popular reality television shows in the world is entitled “Big Brother.” The show’s nod to the novel invokes the kind of benevolent surveillance that “Big Brother” was meant to signify: “We are watching you and we will take care of you.”But Big Brother, as a reality show, is also an experiment in controlling and modifying behavior. By asking participants to put their private lives on display, shows such as “Big Brother” encourage self-scrutiny and behaving according to perceived social norms or roles that challenge those perceived norms.The stress of performing 24/7 on “Big Brother” has led the show to employ a team of psychologists.Television scholar Anna McCarthy and others have shown that the origins of reality television can be traced back to social psychology and behavioral experiments in the aftermath of World War II, which were designed to better control people.Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram, for example, was influenced by “Candid Camera.”In the “Candid Camera” show, cameras were concealed in places where they could film people in unusual situations. Milgram was fascinated with “Candid Camera,” and he used a similar model for his experiments – his participants were not aware that they were being watched or that it was part of an experiment.Like many others in the aftermath of World War II, Milgram was interested in what could compel large numbers of people to “follow orders” and participate in genocidal acts. His “obedience experiments” found that a high proportion of participants obeyed instructions from an established authority figure to harm another person, even if reluctantly.While contemporary reality TV shows do not order participants to directly harm each other, they are often set up as a small-scale social experiment that often involves intense competition or even cruelty.Surveillance in daily lifeAnd, just like in the novel, ubiquitous video surveillance is already here.Closed-circuit television exist in virtually every area of American life, from transportation hubs and networks, to schools, supermarkets, hospitals and public sidewalks, not to mention law enforcement officers and their vehicles.Video surveillance is part of our modern-day lives.Africa StudioSurveillance footage from these cameras is repurposed as the raw material of television, mostly in the news but also in shows like “America’s Most Wanted,” “Right This Minute” and others. Many viewers unquestioningly accept this practice as legitimate.The friendly face of surveillanceReality television is the friendly face of surveillance. It helps viewers think that surveillance happens only to those who choose it or to those who are criminals. In fact, it is part of a culture of widespread television use, which has brought about what Norwegian criminologist Thomas Mathiesen called the “viewer society” – in which the many watch the few.For Mathiesen, the viewer society is merely the other side of the surveillance society – described so aptly in Orwell’s novel – where a few watch the many.[ Expertise in your inbox. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter and get a digest of academic takes on today’s news, every day. ]Stephen Groening, Assistant Professor of Cinema and Media Studies, University of WashingtonThis article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. Please enter your comment! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replylast_img read more

Casa mirador / +arquitectos

first_img 2013 ArchDaily Photographs ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/924805/casa-mirador-plus-arquitectos Clipboard Alex Brahm, David Bonomi, Marcelo Leturia, Maite Bartolomé Projects Architects: +arquitectos Area Area of this architecture project Chile Year:  Area:  5920 ft² Year Completion year of this architecture project Casa mirador / +arquitectos Houses Casa mirador / +arquitectosSave this projectSaveCasa mirador / +arquitectos “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/924805/casa-mirador-plus-arquitectos Clipboard Manufacturers: AutoDesk, RGM, Tecpro, U-GLASS, VANGHAR Save this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldRecommended ProductsWoodSculptformTimber Click-on BattensFiber Cements / CementsRieder GroupFacade Panels – concrete skinDoorsAir-LuxPivoting DoorFiber Cements / CementsDuctal®Ductal® Cladding Panels (EU)Text description provided by the architects. Located in the base of the Andes mountains, the project it’s placed at the top of a hill with north orientation looking towards the valley of the Manquehue Hill.Save this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldSave this picture!1st floor planSave this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldThe single-family house, consists of a ground level with opened spaces to far views, a first level with a multipurpose room, surrounded by a green roof and a basement level that houses cellars and machine rooms. Placed in the middle of the site, the house divides the lot completely, leaving in the south area, a hard-front access patio and services, and towards to the north area, the terraces, swimming pool and gardens.Save this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldSave this picture!2nd floor planSave this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldThe structure is raw concrete, and to improve the insulation, was coated by a ventilated façade of a precast concrete panels (The same was used in pavements), maintaining the monochromatic character of the project.Save this picture!© Aryeh KornfeldProject gallerySee allShow lessHouse GePo / OYOSelected ProjectsJKMM’s Dance House Helsinki is Designed to Advance the Performing ArtsArticles Share Lead Architects: Save this picture!© Aryeh Kornfeld+ 23Curated by Clara Ott Share CopyAbout this office+arquitectosOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesOn FacebookLas CondesChilePublished on September 15, 2019Cite: “Casa mirador / +arquitectos” [Casa mirador / +arquitectos] 15 Sep 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodSiding Façade SystemWindowsMitrexSolar WindowMetal PanelsAurubisPatinated Copper: Nordic Green/Blue/Turquoise/SpecialMetal PanelsDri-DesignMetal Panels – CopperIn architectureSikaBuilding Envelope SystemsExterior DeckingLunawoodThermowood DeckingMembranesEffisusFaçade Protection – Breather+Metal PanelsPure + FreeFormCustom Metal Cladding – Legacy Fund 1 BuildingWood Boards / HPL PanelsInvestwoodWood Fiber Partition Walls – ValchromatDoorsLinvisibileLinvisibile FILO 10 Vertical Pivot Door | BrezzaSkylightsFAKROEnergy-efficient roof window FTT ThermoToilets / BidetsBritexToilets – Accessible Centurion PanMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Photographs:  Aryeh Kornfeld Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project “COPY” CopyHouses•Las Condes, Chilelast_img read more

National BEN day launched

first_imgNational BEN day launched Tagged with: Events About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis2 Howard Lake | 19 June 2004 | News  60 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis2 July 19 2004 has been designated the first National BEN Day by BEN, the Motor and Allied Trades Benevolent Fund.The first National BEN Day coincides with the Fund’s birthday on 19 July and will act as a focus for employees from across the motor industry raise funds for the charity, one year ahead of its centenary.The Fund is setting every organisation that participates the challenge of raising £99 to reflect its 99 years, and it has put together a toolkit of fundraising ideas to assist participating firms reach this figure. Advertisementlast_img read more

Santander offers £2.28m in Social Enterprise Development Awards

first_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 13 June 2012 | News Tagged with: corporate Funding Santander offers £2.28m in Social Enterprise Development Awards About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.  19 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Santander is inviting social enterprises across the UK to enter its Social Enterprise Development Awards. The scheme offers community business support from Santander and the opportunity to win up to £50,000 to help businesses grow.Entries are invited from established social businesses that work in the areas of improving social inclusion, supporting employment, or creating a greener environment. The prizes of £50,000, £30,000 or £15,000 depend on the winner’s turnover. The total prize fund of £2.28 million is split equally across eight regions: London and South East, South West, Midlands, North West, North East, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland.As well as the prize money, the winners will receive support from Santander including mentoring programmes, funding for internships and university business courses and training.The deadline for applications is 2 July 2012.www.santanderseda.co.uk/last_img read more

Challenge to Guerrero authorities over failings in investigations of murders of two journalists

first_img News Receive email alerts 2011-2020: A study of journalist murders in Latin America confirms the importance of strengthening protection policies MexicoAmericas Reporter murdered in northwestern Mexico’s Sonora state NSO Group hasn’t kept its promises on human rights, RSF and other NGOs say News News Reporters Without Borders called today called for an explanation from legal and government authorities in Guerrero state, south-eastern Mexico after the publication of reports which found serious failings in investigations into the murders of two journalists.Amado Ramírez, of privately-owned national channel Televisa in Acapulco, was killed in the city on 6 April 2007, while the editor of regional daily El Despertar de la Costa, Misael Tamayo Hernández was found dead in a motel room at the exit to Ixtapa Zihuatanejo municipality on 10 November 2006.The reports by Mexico’s National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) found there had been astonishing irregularities in the conduct of the investigations. In a 14 January 2008 report on the Amado Ramírez case the CNDH said that the professional lead had been completely ignored even though the journalist had received death threats before his death. The public ministry in Guerrero state had concluded the motive was personal and that it was revenge for an adulterous relationship the journalist was having.The CNDH also said that autopsy reports and witness statements had been “tampered with”. More seriously, two suspects arrested four days after the murder on 10 April 2007, Leonel Bustos Muñoz and Genaro Vázquez Durán, were subjected to “acts of physical and psychological torture” intended to extract confessions. Police on 2 June released Leonel Bustos Muñoz but kept Genaro Vázquez Durán in prison, even though he had been cleared on 14 November by one of the witnesses of the murder, Salvador Cabrera. Cabrera moreover complained of being pressurised by prosecutor’s office officials. In its recommendations, the CNDH called for the opening of an administrative investigation into five public ministry agents and into state police officers who worked on the case.The CNDH report on the case of Misael Tamayo Hernández, released on 30 December 2007, concluded that the investigation had been “irregular” and “deficient”. Police had still not interviewed relatives of the victim nor analysed clues, such as telephone calls made by the journalist immediately before his death, on the road between Guerrero and Michoacán states, or payments made afterwards with his credit card. The CNDH called for an internal investigation within the public ministry and the police. Reports MexicoAmericas May 5, 2021 Find out more Follow the news on Mexico Organisation May 13, 2021 Find out more Help by sharing this information “The authorities in Guerrero state should respond as quickly as possible to the concerns and recommendations of the CNDH,” said Reporters Without Borders.“At the very least, the public ministry and the Guerrero police are guilty of negligence and incompetence and at the worst of deliberately obstructing the justice which they are supposed to serve and represent,” said the worldwide press freedom organisation..“Where the authorities aware of death threats made against the journalist? Why did they until now ignore possible links between the killings and the professions of the victims? Have they something to hide that the journalists had discovered or learned, in a region mired in drug-trafficking and organised crime?” it asked.“The administrative investigations called for by the CNDH will not be enough. The federal justice system should take over the investigation of these two cases”, it concluded. to go further RSF_en January 17, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Challenge to Guerrero authorities over failings in investigations of murders of two journalists April 28, 2021 Find out morelast_img read more

“Who killed my father ?” Journalist Hayatullah Khan’s daughter asks on second anniversary of his murder

first_img Follow the news on Pakistan News News Organisation Receive email alerts January 28, 2021 Find out more News June 16, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 “Who killed my father ?” Journalist Hayatullah Khan’s daughter asks on second anniversary of his murder Pakistani TV anchor censored after denouncing violence against journalists Pakistani journalist critical of the military wounded by gunfire RSF_en center_img PakistanAsia – Pacific Reporters Without Borders calls on the Pakistani federal government and information minister Sherry Rehman in particular to publish the results of the investigations into the death of Hayatullah Khan, a reporter in Pakistan’s northeastern Tribal Areas, whose body was found two years ago today, six months after his still unexplained abduction. “Pakistan is currently outraged by the death of 11 of its soldiers as a result of a US bombardment last week, but it was precisely because Khan had covered an early US bombing on Pakistani soil that he was kidnapped, tortured and killed,” Reporters Without Borders said. “The previous government deliberately refused to shed light on the abduction and murder of this journalist who knew too much. But the new authorities in Islamabad and Peshawar have a duty to identify and punish those responsible, whoever they were. We call for justice to be done.” Fareshta Hayat, Khan’s seven-year-old daughter, said, on the eve of the second anniversary of his death: “I want to know who killed my father”. Khan’s younger brother, Ehsanullah Khan, said: “I want the government to protect Hayatullah’s children, who are afraid of being the victims of a new attack after their mother was killed in a bombing.” Peshawar-based judge Mohammad Raza Khan submitted a report on the journalist’s murder to the authorities on 18 August 2006. Since then, there has been no serious investigation. A source who was able to see the case file said Judge Khan’s report contained evidence that would permit identification of the murderers. The authorities also have two other investigative reports on the murder. None of them has been published. The North Waziristan correspondent of the dailies Ausaf and Nation and photographer for the European Pressphoto Agency (EPA), Khan was kidnapped in North Waziristan on 5 December 2005, just a few days after he had produced evidence refuting Pakistani army claims that the death of Hamza Rabia, an Al-Qaeda Arab leader, was the result of an accidental munitions explosion. Photographs taken by Khan at the scene indicated that Rabia was killed by a US missile that was probably fired from a plane or a drone. Khan’s body was found on 16 June 2006 in North Waziristan. He had been handcuffed and shot several times in the head. He looked very thin, suggesting that he suffered considerable deprivations during his months in captivity.Khan’s widow, a school teacher, was killed by a bomb planted next to her bedroom outside her home in Mir Ali, in North Waziristan, on 16 November 2007. Her five children, aged 2 to 10, who were sleeping in an adjoining bedroom, were not injured by the blast. News June 2, 2021 Find out more April 21, 2021 Find out more PakistanAsia – Pacific to go further Help by sharing this information Pakistani supreme court acquits main suspect in Daniel Pearl murderlast_img read more

Pedestrian dies after being hit by van

first_imgTwitter Facebook Linkedin NewsLocal NewsPedestrian dies after being hit by vanBy admin – January 4, 2012 522 WhatsApp Advertisementcenter_img Previous articleWogan was target for bombNext articleThreat to council services admin Email Print AN elderly man has died after he was struck by a van earlier today.The pedestrian, who is believed to be in his 60s was pronounced dead at the scene.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up The accident happened at Ballaugh, Abbeyfeale in County Limerick at about 5pm.The body was removed by ambulance to the Mid Western Regional Hospital.A number of emergency services attended the scene.The road was closed for a time, while a forensic examination was carried out. It is understood the driver was uninjured in the incident.last_img read more

Delhi Riots: Delhi High Court Issues Notice To Delhi Govt In Plea Seeking Compensation For Victims

first_imgNews UpdatesDelhi Riots: Delhi High Court Issues Notice To Delhi Govt In Plea Seeking Compensation For Victims Karan Tripathi29 Nov 2020 12:40 AMShare This – xDelhi High Court has issued notice in a plea seeking interim and full compensation for the victims of the riots that broke out in the northeast districts of Delhi. While issuing notice, the Single Bench of Justice Navin Chawla has also directed the Delhi Government to file a counter-affidavit within four weeks. Filed by Md Shahabaj and other victims of the riots, the petition…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginDelhi High Court has issued notice in a plea seeking interim and full compensation for the victims of the riots that broke out in the northeast districts of Delhi. While issuing notice, the Single Bench of Justice Navin Chawla has also directed the Delhi Government to file a counter-affidavit within four weeks. Filed by Md Shahabaj and other victims of the riots, the petition seeks compensation for those who came under the attack from the mobs, with their houses burnt and having lost everything. It is argued that these victims immediately require interim and full compensation but the amount specified by the Delhi Government in its compensation scheme is inadequate to provide relief. Seeking financial assistance for such victims, the petition states that: ‘The Petitioners, fearing that they would also meet the same fate and be set on fire by the ruthless mob outside their house, deserted their house and ran away. They left everything behind in their house and could not muster the courage to even collect their important documents. All their energy went in-to save and rescue themselves from the hands of the bloodthirsty mob, which was repeatedly calling for the blood of Muslims.’ The Petitioners have argued that they had no control over the circumstances they were suddenly subjected to, which was a result of the complete breakdown of the rule of law. It is further submitted by the Petitioners that the breaking out of the riots and then the continuous denial of the compensation shows the hostile attitude of the system towards the victims of communal violence and massacres. ‘Not only the system failed to protect their lives and properties during the communal violence but also after that, the respondent authorities kept on dragging their feet and perpetuated the helplessness and distress among the victims’, the Petitioners have claimed. The basis of the petition is the specific targeting of the Petitioners on the basis of their religious identity. As per the petition, they are subjected to arson, and destruction of life and property, by the ‘mob hounding for Muslim blood’. Therefore, the Petitioners seek a compensation policy which takes into account the mental, emotional, physical and other distress that they had to go though and are still going through. The Petitioners have also criticised the compensation policy of the Delhi Government for the reason of its sheer inadequacy to provide relief to the victims. They’ve argued that: ‘Delhi Government’s Assistance scheme for the victims of communal violence is arbitrary and discriminatory. The amount of compensation is too little and inadequate when assessed on the basis of the financial losses and trauma suffered by the victims of the communal violence.’ The court will next take up this matter on February 15. The Petitioners in this case are being represented by Advocate Kawalpreet Kaur.Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

40 players in personnel

first_img Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article The past 12 months have seen dramatic changes in the profession and the next12 are likely to be just as eventful.This year’s profiles of HR’s most powerful players reflects these changes,with the pioneers of outsourcing and its potential impact on the professioninfluencing the line-up chosen by the Personnel Today team. Once again we do not expect you to agree with all our choices but let usknow what you think.Who would be in your top ten? Fax 020-8652 8805 or e-mail:[email protected] ByersSecretary of State for Trade and IndustryStephen Byers is without doubt one of Labour’s high-fliers and among itsmost business-friendly modernisers, but his poor performance in the past 12months means that we only begrugdingly keep him in the top slot. Hisinconsistent approach, coupled with reverses in policy, has made the lives ofmany HR professionals hell. The confusion over the position on Working Timewith amendments and guidance apparently pulling in different directions is anobvious example.There has also been disquiet over the lack of time given to consultationover workplace legislation, and the scope of the consultation carried out.Controversial parts of the union recognition proposals were given less than sixweeks of consultation.Byers’ position is further weakened by the recent Rover debacle and the enormityof his brief without a strong enough deputy. But as a Labour high-flier hecould soon be moved on to keep his reputation intact.James MaddenChairman, CEO and president of ExultMadden shoots straight in at two as a true pioneering spirit, having transformedthe market for human resources outsourced services in the past year. Havingseen the potential for technologically-based HR services long before most inthe industry, Madden secured a five-year contract to operate the bulk ofpersonnel services for the oil giant BP Amoco.His audacious ambition of supplying all the Fortune 500 companies securedhim the backing from General Atlantic Partners, the world’s largest venturecapital firm for the IT sector. His philosophy is based on long-term partnership,and he argues that outsourcing can add value and not simply be a cost-cuttingexercise.Agree or disagree, outsourcing is the biggest issue currently sweepingthrough the profession. Nick StarrittGroup HR director, BP AmocoAs the head of human resources for Britain’s largest company, Starritqualifies as another rocket entry due to the decision last year to outsourcethe bulk of the oil giant’s personnel administration which, coupled withExult’s position to be to able deliver the service, has set the outsourcingagenda for the rest of the profession.A close colleague of the hugely admired chief executive Sir John Browne,Starritt is likely to become an even more influential player. And what BPAmocodoes usually gets copied.Stephen CroninGroup resources director, Xerox EuropeCronin merits his place as the resources director in a company thatunderstands how far personnel management has to be integrated in the generalmatter of running a business. It is for this reason, and not simply to cutcosts, that he plans to outsource administrative parts of the personnelfunction. “I will be happier when 60, 70, 80 or 90 per cent of HR staff’stime is given over to things that really increase productivity,” he says.Again, another pioneering company which others follow. John MonksTUC general secretaryJohn Monks has had a mixed year following what is generally regarded as adefeat on Working Time law, and the Government’s limited interpretations ofEuropean parental leave entitlements and rights for part-timers. His stridentopposition, threatening legal action at every turn, has seemed a little overthe top. The potential disruption for HRprofessionals which will be created by unionrecognition means his profile will remain high over the coming 12 months though.Cherie Booth QCLeading employment barrister; wife of Prime MinisterTwo unexpected developments have put Cherie Booth 13 places higher thisyear. She dared to defy her husband by drafting the TUC’s legal response to theUK interpretation of parental leave law, arguing that it was in breach ofEuropean minimum standards. The likelihood is that her argument will prevailthat the Government restricted the leave too far by limiting it to parents ofchildren born after 15 December 1999.The other significant aspect is that from sometime this month she and TonyBlair will once again be working parents with a baby. Expect to see moregenerous family-friendly measures next year.Geoff ArmstrongDirector general, IPDAs the head of the organisation that guides the HR profession, GeoffArmstrong has had a good year after successfully securing chartered status forthe Institute of Personnel and Development. This is a major boost for thestatus of the profession and means Armstrong just manages to take a higherplace in the top 40 this year. Some would argue he should rank higher but hislow public profile means he does not rival politicians for the top spots.John CridlandDirector of HR policy, CBICridland still merits a place in the top 10 for his influence in bringingabout changes to Working Time law last year, which lightened the bureaucracyfor employers. But the tide is running more towards trade union rights, nowthat the Government wishes to shore up its traditional support, and thisaccounts for his fall from third place. Cridland has led the opposition tocompulsory consultation of employees – a European Commission proposal. Thisopposition is likely to crumble during the French presidency later this year.Richard ScaseAcademic and authorThe writer of Britain Towards 2010: the Changing Business Environment wieldsinfluence out of proportion to the typical low profile of the academic. Hisseminal study argues that social trends and new technology sound the deathknell for top-down corporations which fail to trust their staff. Success willcome from highly skilled, empowered teams of employees.The work gives authority to the practice of more enlightened managers.The influence of this argument has become more apparent in the past year. Innumerous speeches Tony Blair, Gordon Brown and Stephen Byers have describedthese changes as being as profound as those of the Industrial Revolution.Anna DiamantopoulouSocial Affairs Commissioner, European CommissionThis young Greek politician was a surprise appointment last year and has alower rank in the league table than her predecessor Padraig Flynn, solely byvirtue of being new. Early indications are that she is sharper than Flynn, andis learning the brief quickly.As the commissioner for employee relations she has almost as much influenceover UK employment law as the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. Look out for the long-delayed proposal on compulsory employee consultationto emerge during the French presidency later this year. Expect her to have ahigher placing in 2001.Lynda GrattonProfessor of human resource management, London Business SchoolGratton’s new entry reflects her position in a group of three highlyinfluential academics who, as the trend towards outsourcing grows, are in aposition to deliver the new skills and competencies HR will need to managethese providers and to contribute strategically to business.The London Business School also entered the Financial Times top 10 forproviders of MBAs this year – by far the highest placed UK management school –in part due to its research. Gratton’s long-term leading-edge study of eight multinationals has begun todemonstrate graphically that good management of people adds considerably tobusiness performance. Moreover, it shows that this is true at all levels of theorganisation, and that the “soft” issues of trust and integrity seemto count for more than the latest management systems.David UlrichAuthor and conference speakerThe charismatic Ulrich retains the claim to the tag of most popular speakerfor human resources conferences. Ulrich calls for a comprehensive understandingof the role of personnel professionals in which knowledge of the business,commitment to development of employees, strategic awareness and administrativeexpertise all have equal status. He can cite detailed examples from business toback up his case.His witty, “US-preacher” style still packs them in but he willhave to stay up to date with practices in the emerging high-tech companies tokeep his speeches relevant.Linda HolbecheDirector of research, Roffey Park Management InstituteOver the past 12 months, Holbeche’s name has become synonymous with thegrowing drive for personnel practitioners to develop a strategic approach. Shemerits her entry to the top 40 in large part to her second book, Aligning HRand Business Strategy, published last year. It defines the modern world forpersonnel managers where they have to earn their place by being at the core ofthe business, hence her pivotal role in the outsourcing debate.Also influential is Roffey Park’s Management Agenda, an annual snapshot ofthe work and well-being of managers. In the next 12 months, Holbeche will bepublishing the latest stages in ongoing research into the future of careers,strategic alliances and mergers and acquisitions, as well as participating innew research on managing creative teams.Ruth SpellmanChief executive, Investors in People UKUnder Spellman’s tenure since 1998, Investors in People has increased instature as the premium standard for employers developing their staff. Her mainchanges are to judge more by results than by ticking off lists of activities. The revised standard, being phased in from April this year, will featurereduced form-filling and jargon. “We have applied the ‘taxi test’ – givingmaterial to a couple of taxi drivers to see if they understand it,” shesays.Along with chairman Tim Melville-Ross, Spellman has overseen an increase byone-third in the number of organisations achieving the IIP badge, such thateight million people are working for employers with the standard or workingtowards it. She strongly defends the standard’s worth, by pointing out how inspectorshave always had unlimited access to employees as well as managers.Mike JudgePersonnel director, PeugeotJudge moves up a slot as he continues to be the voice of personnel, strikingresonant chords within the profession. His views never fail to court controversy: his comments that the term HR isdemeaning to working people stimulated a great deal of controversy and thebiggest response ever in Personnel Today’s letters page. His “schoolreport” of Tony Blair’s performance at last year’s HRForum is still talkedabout.Plus, with shareholders and institutional investors increasingly demandingfuller statements of HR practices, Peugeot continues to demonstrate that itspeople are important by devoting two pages of its annual report to its staff.Vaughan YoungDirector of HR and development services, BTIn recognition of BT’s place as a progressive and influential employer, HRdirector Bob Mason was at number 12 last year. This year the spotlight falls onBT’s pioneering move to provide HR services to other blue-chip companies and tothe driving force behind it – Vaughan Young. Not only has Young made HRservices a profitable internal business at BT but spotted the potential toincrease its profitability by tapping into the mood for outsourcing – see BP Amoco– and offering its services outside.Simon BrocketDirector of HR, UK and Ireland, Procter & GambleBrocket earns his place as a key player in a multinational firm that hasplaced human issues to the fore as it restructures along global lines. The consumergiant ditched its regional structure last year, opting for global businessunits broken down by product type.Human resources responsibilities are split between strategy, which is atcorporate level, and administration, forming part of the Global BusinessServices, with a European headquarters in Newcastle. The company consideredoutsourcing the personnel administration but rejected the move. “We wantedto get the unquantifiable quality gain from having our own people; not just thelowest-cost system,” he says.Brocket has made sure that human resources policies are closely aligned tobusiness needs, for example by getting IT and personnel people to work closelytogether. He champions diversity and flexible working, including working fromhome.Clara FreemanDirector of personnel and corporate affairs, Marks & SpencerFreeman holds her position because of her surprise high-profile appointmentas head of UK stores last autumn, showing the value that the troubled chainplaces on HR skills in terms of restoring its fortune.M&S’s first female executive director entrusted with the task of”fixing” problems has also retained her other responsibilities in HRand corporate affairs. Freeman is working on a range of initiatives includingProbe, a plan to get sales teams and buyers talking to each other aboutcustomer preferences. Another project known as Clear View involves staffaddressing criticisms levelled at M&S. Sir Michael BurtonChairman of the Central Arbitration CommitteeSir Michael, a High Court judge with a track record in high-profileindustrial disputes, earns his place in the list as a result of the major newrole for the CAC. It will rule on union recognition claims when new legislationcomes into force later this year. The CAC has previously been restricted tocases where staff claim they have not been informed of redundancy plans.But the choice of Sir Michael, who acted for News International during theWapping dispute and for Nottinghamshire miners who refused to take part in the1984 strike, is believed to be making some in the union movement uneasy.Maggi BellDirector and head of recruitment and outplacement, Capita Human ResourceServicesMaggi Bell leaps 20 places, even though Capita failed to secure a major HRoutsourcing contract in 1999, to follow up the Westminster contract sealed in1998. But Capita has hit the big time, reaching the FTSE 100, which willunleash new resources for Bell in her bid for more deals. Also, it is strong inthe public sector, and the Best Value regime in local authorities, startingthis month, will be a spur to outsourcing. And Capita is sure to appear on many shortlists. The group is developing anInternet-based advice service, which could open up the HR outsourced market tosmall and medium sized companies. Expect a higher position next year.John WelchChief executive officer, General ElectricThe world’s most prominent, most copied businessman retains his place in thetop 40. In February this year General Electric, the enormous group he has runfor two decades, won the accolade of Fortune magazine’s most admired company forthe third year in a row. Welch has always put people at the centre of hisstrategy, creating a sense of mission, but also aligning pay systems and theneeds of the business. “This year we will cash $1.6bn in employee gains instock options,” he told Fortune recently. “$1.2bn of that will bebelow any senior management level.”Last year he completed a conversion from technophobe to promoter ofe-commerce. GE Power Systems and the company’s plastics distribution businessnow maximise technology to save costs and respond to customer needs.Sir Ken JacksonGeneral secretary, AEEUSir Ken arguably has more sway in number 10 than John Monks. Without doubt,the general secretary of engineers’ union the AEEU is Tony Blair’s favouriteunion man, for his prophecy of partnership and fixes within the Labour party. The AEEU is striking recognition agreements every month, is rapidly growingand will see its influence grow with the planned merger with the MSF, hence hisleap six places up the list.Duncan BrownPrincipal Towers PerrinIf a big company has problems with its pay system, the chances are it willturn to the quietly-spoken, cerebral Duncan Brown. He becomes a power player inrecognition of his co-authorship with Michael Armstrong of Pay forContribution, published last year, which persuaded companies that the manner inwhich they harness the contribution of individuals is critical to achievingorganisational goals.He argues against mechanical benchmarking of reward systems, blaming thefailure of most schemes on general weaknesses in employee relations. Managersmust consider factors such as trust, communication with staff and training ofline managers.His major survey of European pay at the end of last year revealed that theUK is no more sophisticated and flexible in its pay systems than the rest ofthe Continent. Two more publications are expected later this year.Jon SparkesHR director, Scientific GenericsFor the knowledge-based economy to succeed in the UK, there will have to bemany more human resources directors like Sparkes, who merits a place in the top40 for exemplifying the dynamic role of working closely with strategists andline managers. At the Cambridge-based research and intellectual property group,the HR department’s work is so closely aligned to the business that it isimpossible to disentangle the two.Sparkes has to find, retain and motivate highly intelligent people who cancombine academic brilliance with commercial acumen. But as well as achievingthis, he helps people set up their own companies if they have a strong idea,helping the development of high-tech firms and providing extra incentive towork for Scientific Generics. The firm has seen at least one spin-off company ayear for the past decade, now increasing to about two a year.Peter DruckerManagement thinkerDrucker moves up two places at the grand age of 91 years old, striking ablow against ageism. His forward-thinking and well received ManagementChallenges in the 21st Century appeared last May and heralds the new age of managementby arguing that knowledge workers must be seen as capital assets, not as costs.For the message to come from the most respected management thinker of the pastcentury lends great weight to the argument of personnel professionals.The inventor of modern management teaches that companies must have a clearstrategy with rational choices, not try to please everyone, and that staff mustbelieve in the mission and be treated well. His teaching was influential in thesuccess of General Electric under John Welch.Cary CooperProfessor of occupational psychology, University of Manchester Instituteof Science and TechnologyThe media’s favourite human resources academic, Cary Cooper brought togetherJohn Monks and John Cridland of the TUC and CBI for a major report on theextent of bullying at work. He increasingly does advice work with topboard-rooms based on the annual Quality of Life survey carried out for theInstitute of Management. Every year, two out of three respondents report amajor reorganisation, downsizing or outsourcing; they also say these processesharm loyalty, morale and productivity. “I am saying to the boards ‘Wake upto it!’,” he says. Intriguingly, he says he receives a more favourablereaction in British board rooms than in the US. Terry GormanPresident of the Society of Chief Personnel OfficersMore political and outspoken than many leaders of the local authoritypersonnel managers’ group, this year’s president Terry Gorman can already claimsome influence on government policy. He and outgoing president Rita Sammonspersuaded ministers to consult with personnel managers on Best Value, thescheme for auditing council services and replacing them where they do not offervalue for money. He has warned that Best Value could cause the break-up oflocal government if cost of services becomes the dominant factor. As the most influential voice in a sector employing about a quarter of IPDmembers, he is unquestionably a power player.David GuestProfessor of organisational psychology, Birkbeck CollegeGuest may lack the flamboyance of fellow academics Lynda Gratton and DaveUlrich, but he is beginning to wield similar influence in his quiet manner. Hisresearch also yields strong evidence that good management of people is crucialto commercial success, for example his analysis of the DTI’s EmploymentRelations Survey which demonstrates the connection, particularly when there isgenuine partnership. He has begun a “Future of Work” piece ofresearch, which aims to identify causal links between employee relations in aparticular year with subsequent company performance. This will be published bythe IPD.Nigel ConnollyHR manager EasyJetAfter a disastrous year at British Airways concluding with the resignationof chief executive Bob Ayling, HR director Mervyn Walker has been elbowed outof the Top 40 and is replaced by Nigel Connolly, HR manager of low-costchallenger EasyJet. Connolly is described by a former colleague as a high achiever with a laid-backattitude – an appropriate mix for a successful company with annual sales of£75m, and an atmosphere of informality and democracy. One of Connolly’s mottosis: “recruit for personality, train for skill”. With a turnover of 3per cent among its 850 employees it seems to be paying off.Alex BurnipManaging director, SHLBurnip holds her position this year as managing director of psychometrictests provider SHL and their key role in the “war for talent”.Psychometric tests, having withstood a period of scepticism about theirvalidity, continue to grow in popularity. SHL has maintained its position asmarket leader and is pioneering on-line psychometrics, withPricewaterhouseCoopers as an impressive first client. Burnip emphasises the need for testing a wide range of skills, including thesoft skills increasingly sought by recruiters. She also tries to ensure thetests are free from cultural bias, which is also of growing importance.Bert MassieChairman of the Disability Rights CommissionMassie is yet another new player in the list and nudges in ahead of hiscolleagues in the CRE and EOC because although the DRC was formed earlier thisyear it has more legal clout.Massie, who contracted polio when he was three months old, has been involvedwith more than 30 disability organisations, most recently as director of theRoyal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation. Massie is also an adviser to the Cabinet Secretary on the employment ofdisabled people in the senior Civil Service.While some see the merger of the equality commissions as inevitable.Massie’s hard-line anti-merger stand – he believes the discrimination disabledpeople face is different from race and gender – could prove increasingly hardto defend and radically alter his position next year.Surinder SharmaEqual opportunities department team leader, LittlewoodsThe Government’s approach to promoting equal opportunities in the privatesector is by example, rather than new laws. This means that Surinder Sharma,from the award-winning equal opportunities employer Littlewoods, carries moreinfluence than many in the equalities commissions and enters the Top 40. Whenever a gong is handed out for excellence in equal opportunities, itseems that Sharma steps up to receive it. An example of his initiative is theexperience of the Oldham Littlewoods store where a drive to recruit and retainethnic minority job candidates led to an extra £125,000 worth of business.Sharma is also a member of the Department for Education and Employment advisorycommittee on the work-life balance.John ProphetPresident of the Employment Appeal Tribunal, England and WalesTogether with Colin Milne, who covers Scotland, Prophet earns a place in theTop 40 due to the increasing significance of tribunals because of the huge risein individual rights in the past year. The qualifying period was reduced to oneyear and the maximum compensation increased to £50,000.The Employment Appeal Tribunal sets precedents in employment law, and JudgeProphet’s influence was exemplified by the landmark ruling on unfair dismissalsat the end of last year. He instructed tribunals that they had misappliedearlier precedents and ordered them to ignore apparent parallels with othercases and revert to a common sense verdict of whether an employer’s actionswere reasonable. This has tilted the balance of power back towards theclaimant.Dr John McMullenNational head of employment law, Pinsent CurtisOstensibly it has been a quiet year in terms of media profile for leadingemployment lawyer McMullen, which accounts for his fall in this year’s list. He has, however, been quietly beavering away on the Tupe conference circuitand it is because he is a Tupe mastermind that he retains a place, as Tupestill represents one of the profession’s biggest headaches. No one else comesclose to matching his expertise on the subject. He has enjoyed a higher profile in Europe, though, and with changes to theimpending legislation the increasing demand for his services is likely to seehim return to the top 10 in 2001.Julie MellorChair of the Equal Opportunities CommissionMellor drops position this year due to little progress despite a promisingstart. In July 1999, equal opportunities minister Margaret Hodge responded tothe commission’s attempts to get the Government to update the SexDiscrimination Act and simplify the way cases are dealt with under the EqualPay Act with a promise to “consult”. No changes have yet been made.Clive MortonIndependent HR consultantClive Morton has spent much effort in recent months preparing projects thatare likely to come to fruition in the next year, so his slip down the leaguetable from last year’s 14th spot is likely to be temporary. In June he will discover if the Linc consortium, of which he is a boardmember, has won the contract to manage a part of the London Underground underthe Public/Private Partnership scheme. The author of Becoming World Class and Beyond World Class is also planning athird book on the links between relationships and success.Gurbrux SinghNewly appointed chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality, who isdue to take up his post this month Singh takes over from Sir Herman Ouseley who stepped down in January.Currently chief executive of Haringey Council, he made his name as anarch-moderniser and pioneer of controversial equal opportunities policies. Heabolished Haringey’s specialist equality units – despite fierce opposition –because he believed they had become marginalised. The policy has been copied byother local authorities.Will HuttonChief executive, The Industrial SocietyWill Hutton, former editor of The Observer, joins the list having taken overas chief executive of The Industrial Society. Just a few months into his tenureas head of the organisation, Hutton has already stated his intention to makethe society a key source of information and opinion on workplace issues. Arecent Industrial Society seminar on the work-life balance threw up interestingcriticism of the US experience and Hutton has also called for companies to puttraining centre stage to maximise shareholder value.Hutton’s background at The Observer and before that at The Guardian has seenhim try to marry economics and social welfare. His most famous concept is thestakeholder society, as espoused in his widely read political analysis ofBritain, The State We’re In. This book was viewed as offering much of theintellectual underpinning of the New Labour project. But he is now seen as alittle out of step with the party’s hierarchy so don’t expect The IndustrialSociety to develop into a research arm of the Labour party.David Blunkett MPEducation and Employment SecretaryThere was never any doubt that Blunkett’s reputation was going to take ahammering in this year’s list with detractors queuing up to slam the Governmentfor its woeful training initiatives. One of the harshest critics is GMB generalsecretary John Edmonds, who ridiculed the schemes earlier this year as “ahandful of measures no one has ever heard of”. The extent of this confusion was highlighted when Personnel Todayinvestigated the schemes and what they were intended to achieve, and found thatthe DfEE does not even have a list of all its current initiatives. If itdoesn’t then what chance do businesses have of being aware of them? Until the Government produces legislation requiring organisations to trainstaff and financially penalising any who don’t, his position will continue tobe low.Rhiannon ChapmanHR consultantAlthough Chapman slips down the list this year she just manages to maintaina place in the Top 40 on the strength of her keenly awaited HR consultancy product.It will be the first time a consultant will have had the confidence to promisea quantified improvement in business performance through human resourcesinterventions and these are the kind of deals HR should be emulating.Her pledge is a 16 per cent improvement to the bottom line, at a charge of0.5 per cent of the pay bill, through an intervention lasting three to fourmonths. It will encourage clients to prioritise and look for highest standardsin the area of human resources activity that add most value to theorganisation, rather than trying to be expert in everything. Chapman’s product is based on a library of best practice, built on thegrowing research evidence that excellence in managing people is a key lever tobusiness success. • Profiles were written by Scott Beagrie, Edward Dimbylow, DominiqueHammond, Tom Powdrill Helen Rowe and Philip Whiteley 40 players in personnelOn 2 May 2000 in Personnel Todaylast_img read more

Regional and seasonal differences in microplankton biomass, productivity, and structure across the Scotia Sea: Implications for the export of biogenic carbon

first_imgSurveys of the microplankton communities of the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean, were carried out during three separate seasons of interest, spring, summer, and autumn of consecutive years. The surveys were conducted along a south to north transect and covered areas of low and high productivity, as well as crossing deep, open water and shallow, bathymetric features. During the summer and autumn cruises, cluster analysis revealed four distinct communities that were broadly consistent between cruises. From south to north the zones in which the communities fell were as follows: SOUTH, stations in the south Scotia Sea; MID, stations in the central Scotia Sea; SW-SG, stations southwest of the island of South Georgia; and NW-SG, stations northwest of South Georgia. Two main groups dominated the microplankton communities in all zones and all seasons; diatoms and naked, heterotrophic dinoflagellates. However, the proportion of these groups, and the species of diatom present, varied between zones and between seasons. In the SOUTH zone, a cryptophyte bloom was observed during summer. Spring and autumn communities showed similar levels of Chl a (0.6–1.5 mg m−3) but shifted to increasing numbers and biomass of heavily silicified diatoms (Fragilariopsis spp. and Corethron pennatum). Dense, spring blooms of the MID zone were dominated by a weakly silicified diatom, Thalassiosira spp. This contrasted with production 10 times lower (∼0.2 g C m−2 d−1) during the dinoflagellate composed, summer and autumn cruises. Closer to the island of South Georgia, lightly silicified diatoms became increasingly prevalent. In the SW-SG zone, such diatoms were found both in low Chl a (0.3 mg m−3) spring-time waters and in short-lived summer blooms. Autumn communities saw a switch to dinoflagellates co-inciding with decreasing light levels and depletion of macronutrients. Downstream of South Georgia, in the NW-SG zone, high productivity (up to 2.8 g C m−2 d−1) and long lasting blooms (3–6 months) were found on all seasons surveyed. The NW-SG microplankton consisted of a mixed community with both heavily and weakly silicified diatoms, but also significant amounts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Using bloom dynamics, microplankton structure and diatom speciation of our 4 Scotia Sea zones, we propose the following potential export regimes: (1) SOUTH – weak export of carbon, (2) MID – episodic, dense pulses of carbon may be exported, (3) SW-SG – modest pulses of carbon may be exported, and (4) NW-SG – high export of biogenic carbon likely to occur.last_img read more