Tag: 杭州楼凤

7 days agoMan Utd boss Solskjaer: We’re planning for January and summer windows

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Man Utd boss Solskjaer: We’re planning for January and summer windowsby Paul Vegas7 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United boss Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has confirmed they have plans for the January market.Solskjaer’s side have endured the club’s worst start to a season in 30 years, but executive vice-chairman Ed Woodward has reiterated his support of the under-fire manager.”I speak to Ed loads of times and we speak regularly,” Solskjaer said. “As we’ve spoken about so many times, we do have a plan and we know that we’ve made some decisions that maybe in the short-term would harm us, but we know in the long-term will benefit us. And that’s part of the plan.”But results are always are always the main thing and we can move forward quicker if we get results and performances.”But I’m sure we will get there. It’s just still planning for the next transfer window, summer transfer window and how we see the team moving forward.” last_img read more

Scientists identify skeleton key for congenital kidney disease research

first_img Source:http://ewww.kumamoto-u.ac.jp/en/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 31 2018Scientists in Japan have found a ‘skeleton key’ for congenital kidney disease research. Using iPS cells generated from the skin cells of a patient with a nephrin mutation, Kumamoto University scientists have successfully developed kidney tissue that exhibits the early stages of congenital kidney disease. The protein nephrin is a constituent of the kidney filtration membrane and abnormalities of this protein are commonly found in other types of kidney diseases. The results of this work are expected to unlock several doors in future kidney disease research.The kidneys are organs that filter out and discharge waste products from the blood. During this process, proteins in the blood should not leak into the urine. The membrane responsible for this filtration is part of the glomerular podocyte and nephrin is its main constituent. If there is a genetic mutation affecting the nephrin, a large amount of protein in the blood can leak into the urine resulting in congenital nephrotic syndrome. The treatment of this syndrome is radical and difficult, and the absence of a technique to artificially reproduce a mutated filtration membrane has been a bottleneck in research progress.In 2014, this Kumamoto University research group succeeded in the extremely difficult task of producing artificial kidney tissue in vitro from human iPS cells–a world first. And in 2016, they found that glomerular podocytes derived from iPS cells strongly express nephrin, that the human glomeruli readily connects with mouse blood vessels, and that induced podocytes continue to mature after transplantation into mice. With this knowledge, they applied their techniques to iPS cells derived from a single patient for their most recent project.Related StoriesNew imaging probe allows earlier detection of acute kidney failureLow dose of endotoxin could have protective effect on men at risk of acute kidney injuryBordeaux University Hospital uses 3D printing to improve kidney tumor removal surgeryFirst, they established iPS cells from the skin cells of a patient with congenital nephrotic syndrome having a single nephrin mutation. When they induced kidney tissue from these iPS cells in vitro, they found that nephrin, which should exist on the surface of the glomerular podocyte, remained inside the cell, and that almost no filtration membrane precursor could develop. When podocyte maturation was performed by transplantation into mice, nephrin, which typically moves toward the blood vessel side of normal podocytes again remained inside the patient-derived cells. In other words, the initial pathology of this congenital kidney disease was reproduced by the iPS cells derived from the diseased patient.Furthermore, when the nephrin mutation in patient-derived iPS cells were repaired and then induced into kidney tissue, the abnormalities were normalized. Put simply, the researchers found that this single mutation is the cause of the disease, and showed that it could possibly be treated by repairing the mutation.”Because we can now reproduce the pathology of congenital nephrotic syndrome, it should be much easier to explore therapeutic drugs using this podocyte,” said project leader Professor Ryuichi Nishinakamura. “Even when kidney disease develops in adults, it often begins with abnormal quantities of protein in the urine. It is believed that this is often caused by trouble in the nephrin protein of the filtration membrane. If a medication is discovered that controls nephrin protein, there is a strong possibility that it will be highly effective for kidney disease. What we have achieved here is a big step towards the development of drugs that act on podocytes and reduce proteinuria.”last_img read more

Worryingly long wait for NHS cancer patients

first_imgJanuary 2019 marks five years since the 62-day cancer target was first missed and, despite the best efforts of hard working NHS staff, more than 127,000 people have been left waiting too long to start vital treatment throughout that time.” Dr  Fran Woodard, Macmillan Cancer Support The backlog of patients waiting to start treatment continues to grow. There are now over 100,000 more patients waiting longer than 18 weeks to start treatment when compared with the same time last year.”Professor Derek Alderson, President, Royal College of Surgeons. By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDMar 20 2019Around a fourth of NHS cancer patients have to wait a worryingly long amount of time to start treatment, according to a new NHS England report.The new figures reveal that the health service has not been meeting targets of on-time health care delivery to cancer patients for over 1000 days. Similar figures have emerged from the A&E department performance.For patients diagnosed with cancer, the UK government recommends that treatment should begin within 62 days. At least 85 percent of the patients should be seen during this time. January figures, however, reveal that only 76.2 percent of the patients are seen within this time frame. Labour’s shadow health secretary Jonathan Ashworth in a statement said, “Today’s statistics will do little to allay frontline concerns that targets will be changed not on the basis of clinical consensus, but because of political pressure from Tory ministers.” He called the situation “shameful”. A spokeswoman from the NHS said, “More people than ever before are coming forward for cancer checks, with a quarter of a million more people getting checked for cancer this year and thousands more being treated within the two-month target. NHS England is investing an additional £10m this year to treat extra people and the NHS Long Term Plan sets out a range of ambitious measures to catch more cancers earlier, which will save thousands of lives every year.”Waiting time has not been looking good for the A&E department as well says the report. Only 84.2 percent of the patients are seen within the four hour target time. The recommended numbers of 95 percent have not been met since July 2015, says the report.Related StoriesHow cell-free DNA can be targeted to prevent spread of tumorsStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskLiving with advanced breast cancerAn NHS spokeswoman said to this, “Despite significant increases in demand, almost a quarter of a million more people have been seen and treated within four hours in A&E this winter compared to last year. Ambulance services are responding to life threatening calls faster, with fewer ambulance handover delays at A&E, and significantly more people have got the support they needed to avoid a long stay in hospital.”The Royal College of Surgeons has issued a statement saying that 227,569 patients are kept waiting for over six months for a planned procedure. At present 4.16 million people are waiting to start on their treatment says the report.last_img read more

Bordeaux University Hospital uses 3D printing to improve kidney tumor removal surgery

first_imgThe deployment of the J750 has been enabled thanks to funding from three partners: the European Union, the Regional Council of Nouvelle Aquitaine and the Bordeaux University Foundation, of which the CHU is a part. Source:Stratasys Jul 15 2019Bordeaux University Hospital (CHU) in France is leading the charge to improve success rates of complex kidney tumor removal surgery, thanks to unique full-color, multi-material 3D printing technology. The CHUis currently one of the only hospitals worldwide to use a Stratasys J750– the world’s only full-color, multi-material 3D printer – for complex kidney tumor removal cases. The 3D printed models are also used to enhance the explanatory process towards patients, as well as improve surgeon training.Support from patientsRelated StoriesStratasys’ new J720 Dental 3D printer sets new standards for digital dentistryStratasys advanced FDM 3D printing helps Biodonostia to improve treatment for thoracic wall tumorsStratasys and Materialise bring 3D printed medical models to lifeOne such patient is Carole Ridel, who recently underwent surgery at the CHU. “I was shown a 3D printed model of my kidney prior to my operation and instantly felt more reassured than I had been before surgeries I had undergone in the past,” she explains. “Seeing such a realistic representation allowed me to understand the process much better than an MRI scan. I noticed that the tumors were on the external wall of the kidney, rather than inside the organ itself, so I was comforted by realizing the situation wasn’t as bad as I had imagined.”Collaborative project to improve communication with patientsUsing its J750 3D Printer, CHU also recently created a collaborative research project entitled Rein 3D Print, which aims to determine whether boosting patient understanding of their surgical procedure can improve ambulatory care (same-day surgery that doesn’t necessitate an overnight stay). According to Prof. Bernhard, 3D-printed model shave contributed to the success of this pilot protocol and have reduced patient hospitalization times during pre-surgery planning. The surgical team at the CHU’sDepartment of Urology and Kidney Transplantationis3D printing life-like transparent and color models of the patient’s anatomy to help perform precise and successful kidney-sparing surgery and improve patient outcomes.Jean-Christophe Bernhard, Urology Professor at Bordeaux University Hospital, says the clearer view offered by the 3D printed model helps identify and avoid damage to the delicate nearby arteries and vessels which, in the case of complex or high-volume tumors, can result in a patient’s kidney being completely removed.Sparing the patient’s kidney is important because it reduces the chance of subsequently suffering from chronic kidney disease. Having a 3D-printed model comprising the patient’s kidney tumor, main arteries and vessels – each in a different color – provides an accurate picture of what we will see during operations. The ability to visualize the specific location of a tumor in relation to these other elements, all in three dimensions, greatly facilitates our surgical planning and is not easily achievable from a 2D scan.”Jean-Christophe Bernhard, Urology Professor, Bordeaux University Hospital The clearer view offered by a transparent, full-color 3D printed model increases the ability to perform precise and successful kidney-sparing Describing kidney tumor removal with a 2D scan or diagram will invariably leave most patients somewhat bewildered. Presenting them with a 3D printed model that clearly shows the tumor puts them at ease and enables the patient to grasp exactly what we’re going to do. Indeed, initial research from patient questionnaires shows that having 3D printed models increases their understanding of the surgery by up to 50%, so it’s a considerable benefit in terms of overall patient care.”Prof. Jean-Christophe Bernhardlast_img read more

Selfassembling 3D battery would charge in seconds

first_img A cross-campus collaboration led by Ulrich Wiesner, professor of engineering in the at Cornell University, addresses this demand with a novel energy storage device architecture that has the potential for lightning-quick charges.The group’s idea: Instead of having the batteries’ anode and cathode on either side of a nonconducting separator, intertwine the components in a self-assembling, 3-D gyroidal structure, with thousands of nanoscale pores filled with the elements necessary for energy storage and delivery.”This is truly a revolutionary battery architecture,” said Wiesner, whose group’s paper, “Block Copolymer Derived 3-D Interpenetrating Multifunctional Gyroidal Nanohybrid for Electrical Energy Storage,” was published May 16 in Energy and Environmental Science, a publication of the Royal Society of Chemistry.”This three-dimensional architecture basically eliminates all losses from dead volume in your device,” Wiesner said. “More importantly, shrinking the dimensions of these interpenetrated domains down to the nanoscale, as we did, gives you orders of magnitude higher power density. In other words, you can access the energy in much shorter times than what’s usually done with conventional battery architectures.”How fast is that? Wiesner said that, due to the dimensions of the battery’s elements being shrunk down to the nanoscale, “by the time you put your cable into the socket, in seconds, perhaps even faster, the battery would be charged.”The architecture for this concept is based on block copolymer self-assembly, which the Wiesner group has employed for years in other devices, including a gyroidal solar cell and a gyroidal superconductor. Joerg Werner, Ph.D. ’15, lead author on this work, had experimented with self-assembling photonic devices, and wondered if the same principles could be applied to carbon materials for energy storage.The gyroidal thin films of carbon—the battery’s anode, generated by block copolymer self-assembly—featured thousands of periodic pores on the order of 40 nanometers wide. These pores were then coated with a 10 nm-thick, electronically insulating but ion-conducting separator through electropolymerization, which by the very nature of the process produced a pinhole-free separation layer.That’s vital, since defects like holes in the separator are what can lead to catastrophic failure giving rise to fires in mobile devices such as cellphones and laptops.The next step is the addition of the cathode material—in this case, sulfur—in an amount that doesn’t quite fill the remainder of the pores. Since sulfur can accept electrons but doesn’t conduct electricity, the final step is backfilling with an electronically conducting polymer—known as PEDOT (poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]).While this architecture offers proof of concept, Wiesner said, it’s not without challenges. Volume changes during discharging and charging the battery gradually degrade the PEDOT charge collector, which doesn’t experience the volume expansion that sulfur does.”When the sulfur expands,” Wiesner said, “you have these little bits of polymer that get ripped apart, and then it doesn’t reconnect when it shrinks again. This means there are pieces of the 3-D battery that you then cannot access.”The group is still perfecting the technique, but applied for patent protection on the proof-of-concept work. , Energy & Environmental Science Researchers create first self-assembled superconductor Explore further The world is a big place, but it’s gotten smaller with the advent of technologies that put people from across the globe in the palm of one’s hand. And as the world has shrunk, it has also demanded that things happen ever faster—including the time it takes to charge an electronic device. More information: J. G. Werner et al. Block copolymer derived 3-D interpenetrating multifunctional gyroidal nanohybrids for electrical energy storage, Energy & Environmental Science (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C7EE03571C A rendering of the 3D battery architecture (top; not to scale) with interpenetrating anode (grey, with minus sign), separator (green), and cathode (blue, plus sign), each about 20 nanometers in size. Below are their respective molecular structures. Credit: Wiesner Group Provided by Cornell University Journal information: Energy and Environmental Science Citation: Self-assembling 3-D battery would charge in seconds (2018, May 17) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-self-assembling-d-battery-seconds.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

LA to become first in US to install subway body scanners

first_img Citation: LA to become first in US to install subway body scanners (2018, August 14) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-la-subway-body-scanners.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Body scanners being piloted in Los Angeles subway system In this Tuesday, Feb. 27, 2018 file photo ThruVision suicide vest-detection technology reveals an suspicious object on a man, at left, during a Transportation Security Administration demonstration in New York’s Penn Station. Los Angeles is poised to have the first mass transit system in the U.S. with body scanners that screen passengers for weapons and explosives. Officials from the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Transportation Security Administration have scheduled a Tuesday, Aug. 14, 2018, news conference. The TSA has been working on the experimental devices, known as standoff explosive detection units, since 2004 with transit agencies. They hadn’t been deployed permanently at any transit hub. (AP Photo/Richard Drew,File)center_img © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Transportation Security Administration had been testing several different types of body scanners for about a year.The scanners that are being deployed are portable, and project waves to do a full-body screening of passengers walking through a station without slowing them down.The machines, which scan for metallic and non-metallic objects on a person’s body, can detect suspicious items from 30 feet (9 meters) away and have the capability of scanning more than 2,000 passengers per hour, said Brian Haas, a spokesman for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.The TSA tested body scanners in New York’s Penn Station in February and has also conducted tests at Union Station in Washington, D.C., and at a New Jersey Transit station during the 2014 Super Bowl.In December, a Bangladeshi immigrant injured himself by setting off a crude pipe bomb strapped to his chest in a subway passageway near Times Square in New York City.Metro has previously tested several different types of body scanners, including airport-style screening systems where passengers walk through a scanner. The pilot program was meant to evaluate the accuracy and capacity of the portable machines.About 150,000 passengers ride on Metro’s Red Line daily and the subway system counted more than 112 million rides last year. The Los Angeles subway system will become the first in the U.S. to install body scanners that screen passengers for weapons and explosives, officials said Tuesday.last_img read more

Geographic location biggest indicator of mobile app preferences

first_imgCredit: CC0 Public Domain Provided by University College London Across the globe smartphones and mobile apps have become an integral part of everyday life, but what determines the apps you use? Socio-economic factors also play an important role when considering mobile usage. The study shows that occupation, education, and how much a person has in savings, are the next most important factors in determining what apps a person will use. Socio-economic factors are more important than age and gender.People of similar socio-economic status tend to use their smartphones in a similar way across the globe. This is particularly true for people of similar household status, living with or without children, and is also true for professionals and well-educated people.Dr. Ella Peltonen, lead author on the study and postdoctoral research fellow at the Insight Centre for Data Analytics, Ireland, said: “The results of our work show that there is a strong relationship between the type of apps people use and their geographic and socio-economic factors, suggesting that these different factors should be taken into account when studying mobile data. In addition, our results can be used to better target mobile apps in different countries, and for personalisation.”Dr. Musolesi concluded: “The findings of this research can be exploited in many contexts, not only commercial ones. We can use this information for better targeting applications for positive behaviour intervention or civic participation. One specific application domain is digital health, where understanding which applications are popular in a certain region for a specific socio-economic group is of fundamental importance for effective and systematic actions such as for disease prevention, vaccination campaigns or mental health interventions at local and national level.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Ella Peltonen et al. The hidden image of mobile apps, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services – MobileHCI ’18 (2018). DOI: 10.1145/3229434.3229474center_img App usage soars as smartphones take hold A new study involving UCL reveals that the country you live in rather than your demographic data is actually the biggest indicator of the types of apps you download and use. The study, conducted in collaboration with the Insight Centre for Data Analytics, Ireland, University of Helsinki, Finland, and Lancaster University, UK, will be presented at the MobileHCI 2018 conference in Barcelona, Spain, September 3-6. Researchers found that English-speaking countries, including the UK, USA, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, as well as Japan and South Korea had the highest app usage, with the lowest app usage being found in Argentina, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Pakistan and India.Dr. Mirco Musolesi, who leads the UCL Intelligent Social System Lab (UCL Geography), said: “Previously studies have not focused on geographic and cultural factors behind app usage, instead choosing to focus on usage patterns and behaviour.”Our research highlights that even if mobile communications and hyper-connectivity are a global phenomenon, the country we live in plays a huge part in determining our app preferences. Understanding how and when people use phones, and which apps they engage with, is important for the study of individual behaviour and society at large.”The team applied large-scale analysis of geographic, cultural, and demographic factors in mobile usage, using data from 25,323 Android users who used 54,776 mobile applications in 44 countries across Europe, Americas, Asia and Oceania.While Hofstede’s Value Survey Model was used to determine cross-cultural preferences, finding that masculine cultures, as determined by the model, with more pronounced gender roles, like Japan prefer Personalization apps that help users to more easily customise their device, while collectivist cultures and those with more fluid gender roles such as Russia seem to value Family related categories, such as Education and Parenting applications. “Individualist” cultures such as the US favoured Entertainment apps and other leisure related categories, such as Travel & Local, Sports, Health and Fitness, and Music and Audio. The most popular categories for the UK are Communication apps, Social, Travel & Local, and News & Magazines. The researchers also observed that the UK is characterised by an application usage pattern that is closer to other English-speaking countries and more distant from that observed in countries in continental Europe. Explore further Citation: Geographic location biggest indicator of mobile app preferences (2018, September 5) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-apps.htmllast_img read more

Fit to drive The car will judge

first_img Sweden has the safest roads in the EU, with 25 deaths per million inhabitants, whereas Romania has almost four times as many with 99. Credit: Horizon This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. When you’re sleepy, stressed or have had a few drinks, you’re not in the best position to drive – or even make that decision. But automated cars could soon make that call for you. Provided by Horizon: The EU Research & Innovation Magazine Many drivers are unfit to drive from the beginning of their journey, say researchers. Credit – Takahiro Taguchi/Unsplash This could be alleviated by allowing an automated bus to support the driver – for example through automated docking at bus stops – while ensuring the driver still has control in unforeseen circumstances. Helping the vehicle and the driver to work together can lead to safer roads, she says.IndividualShe also notes that each person varies and reacts differently in both normal and impairment states, such as sleepiness, and therefore the systems should work on an individual level. To measure heart rate variability accurately, for example, information such as age and gender should be included or the initial state of the driver should be used as a reference.”It’s important to develop systems where your individual preferences and behaviours are incorporated,” said Dr. Anund. “So we will also focus on individualising the detection system but also the HMI (human-computer interaction).”If the user can design how they want the communication between human and vehicle to be done, then there’s more trust and acceptance, she explains.Another problem in road safety is driving under the influence of alcohol. About 25% of all road deaths in Europe are alcohol-related. As alcohol concentration in the drivers’ blood increases, the crash rate does too.One of the recommendations to the EU suggested in a 2014 report by Ecorys, a research and consulting company, is to make alcohol interlock devices—in which drivers have to take a breathalyser test before they can start the ignition—mandatory for certain categories of drivers or vehicles, such as repeated drink-driving offenders, professional drivers or commercial good vehicles.Previous studies have shown that alcohol ignition interlock devices are 40%-95 % more effective in preventing drink-driving recidivism than traditional measures such as licence withdrawal or fines. The risk of reoffending is reduced by 28%-65 % when these devices are installed, and rises again if they’re removed.Julian Sofroniev, CEO of Bulgarian company Global Technology Biodit, which manufactures biometric security products, said: “These devices are really important. We could save more than 25,000 lives by preventing car engines to start when people have high levels of alcohol in their blood.”Biodit is developing a device that combines alcohol detection with biometric identification to prevent a drunk driver from starting a vehicle, through a project called PREVENT.The idea is that the ignition lock would replace the start/stop button and would be pressed by the driver when they get into a car. The device would use a laser to measure different physiological parameters – such as heart beats or sweat, for example – and if they’ve had too much to drink then the car’s ignition would simply not start.”In these cases you could call a taxi, but you definitely can’t use your car,” said Sofroniev.To avoid the risk of someone other than the driver taking the test, the device will also use finger vein recognition, where vein patters are matched to records, to confirm the driver’s identity. Blood vessel patterns are unique to each individual and are almost impossible to fake because they are located beneath the skin’s surface.In its first stage of research, PREVENT confirmed a market need for such a device. Consequently, Sofroniev and his team are continuing to develop their device and hope it will hit the market by the end of next year. Explore further Citation: Fit to drive? The car will judge (2019, March 4) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-car.html In Europe, more than 25,000 people lose their lives on the road every year, while another 135,000 are seriously injured. The main culprits are speed, alcohol or drug driving, non-use of seat belts, distraction, and fatigue. Europe is the world’s safest region with 49 deaths per million inhabitants, but given that the EU aims to bring road safety deaths down to almost zero by 2050, there is still more to be done.The type of automated cars on the road today provide steering, brake and acceleration support while the driver is still at the wheel and constantly monitors the driving. These are known as level two on the autonomy scale, but cars could reach up to level five on the six-level scale in the future—becoming a completely driverless car.However, we are not there yet and we have to take it step-by-step, says Dr. Anna Anund from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).She and her team are developing sensor-based systems as part of the ADAS&ME project to move towards level three, in which the driver can rest and would only be expected to drive when the car requests it.These systems would also automatically transfer control between vehicle and driver to ensure road safety, especially when the driver is sleepy, stressed, distracted or anxious.”We want to make sure that we don’t give the control back to drivers that are not fit to drive, and also that we can use the automated functionality to take over the control if the driver is not fit to drive,” said Dr. Anund. “What we would like to achieve is a safe and acceptable transition in order to avoid severe crashes with people being severely injured or even killed.”UnfitA lot of drivers are unfit to drive from the beginning—sometimes they’re fatigued, sometimes they fall asleep as they drive in the middle of the night, sometimes they’re worried, stressed or inattentive, she explains. A driver’s state, but also other factors, such as their health, what road they are driving on, the weather conditions and what time of the day it is, influence driving and increase the risk of crashes. According to information published by the European Commission, driver fatigue is a major factor in 10%-20% of road crashes. However, because it is hard to measure fatigue or sleepiness, it has received relatively little attention over the years in conjunction with traffic and traffic accidents, says Dr. Anund. The ADAS&ME team are looking specifically at seven different driving scenarios in various vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles.In one scenario, a car needs to take over emergency braking when a driver on a motorway is on their mobile phone and the car in front brakes abruptly. In another, a motorcycle is able to detect that a rider has fainted and turns on the hazard lights, decelerates and pulls over to the side of the road.The systems use many types of sensors to monitor the drivers’ state, such as eye trackers and sensors to measure heart rate and changes in voice or face images, most of which are on the vehicle’s dashboard, wheel or seat. These sensors exist and is matter of using them together in a driving context, says Dr. Anund.Dr. Anund and her team have found that one group of drivers at risk of fatigue are bus driver, whose split shifts affect their sleepiness and performance during afternoon drives.”We know that about 40% of bus drivers in the city have to fight to stay awake 2-4 times a month or more often due to high levels of stress,” said Dr. Anund. Autonomous driving – hands on the wheel or no wheel at alllast_img read more