Tag: 上海后花园ME

NASA limits foreign contributions to U.S. planetary missions

first_imgHow much international collaboration is too much? When it comes to foreign instruments provided to NASA planetary science missions, the answer is anything more than 33%.Earlier this month, NASA unveiled a draft set of rules for its next Discovery competition, which funds planetary science missions costing no more than $450 million. Today, at a meeting of asteroid and comet scientists in Washington, D.C., NASA officials explained some of the new rules for the next mission, to be selected in 2016. Among them was a stipulation that the principal investigator would not be allowed to recruit foreign instrument contributions in excess of one-third the value of the U.S. instruments on the payload, even though those contributions don’t count against the $450 million cap.The new rule is a response to a current Discovery-class mission with no major U.S.-made instruments. InSight, a Mars lander built at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, that will launch in 2016, carries a French-made seismometer and a German-made heat probe. “The American scientific instrument community was not happy with that,” says Michael New, the lead Discovery Program scientist at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)NASA wants to make sure that some of the $18 million a year the agency invests in developing planetary science instruments pays off, New says. He also points out that NASA has less ability to enforce the on-time delivery of foreign instruments and ensure that data from those instruments get shared quickly with the public. “With foreign contributions come increased risk and increased potential problems with data archiving,” he says.InSight is not the only Discovery mission with a science payload dominated by foreign scientists.Dawn, en route to the asteroid Ceres after visiting Vesta, was designed to carry five instruments, three of which were U.S.-led. But two were cut from the mission before its 2007 launch. That left the spacecraft with a German camera, an Italian spectrometer, and a U.S. gamma ray and neutron detector.Bruce Banerdt, the principal investigator for InSight, says he’s not surprised that NASA is cracking down with the new policy. “I’ve heard it described as the InSight rule.” But he defends his choice of foreign-made instruments. He says the teams he selected were the best providers of a seismometer and a heat probe necessary to study Mars’s interior. “I feel comfortable saying we picked the best and almost sole sources for these kinds of instruments,” he says.Although Banerdt acknowledges the importance of spending U.S. tax dollars at home, he points out that InSight’s two instruments, valued at more than $50 million, will produce data to be shared globally. “National boundaries don’t apply to scientific knowledge.”last_img read more

The 5 Takeaways from the Coyotes introduction of

The 5 Takeaways from the Coyotes introduction of

first_img The 5: Takeaways from the Coyotes’ introduction of Alex Meruelo 0 Comments   Share   Top Stories If you’re a Cardinals fan, you should be gushing over this signing. The Cardinals got a player on a one-year deal who wants to prove he’s more than a one-year deal player. The Cardinals have a CB who’s been expected to shut down the number one receiver and play at an elite level. However, the Cardinals won’t need him to do that.It is a big deal what this does for the Cardinals’ defense. Many things will be written about what Todd Bowles can do with his new toy. Yes, that’s important. But to me, the bigger deal is Keim.The signing of Jared Veldheer is nice because he’s an above average, young left tackle. The contract for Veldheer is much bigger than just the signing. While other teams completely over-pay, Keim filled a need while getting value at the same time. Few GMs can pull off that double.Now, Keim gets a proven CB on a contract that forces Cromartie to prove it again. Keim wanted Cromartie but when Antonio didn’t sign, Keim talked with another CB. Cromartie didn’t get the offers he was looking for elsewhere. He also wanted to be a Cardinal and his agent knew it. Keim didn’t panic and pressured Cromartie at the same time. He completely read 31 other GMs correctly. Keim never negotiated against himself. Former Cardinals kicker Phil Dawson retires Derrick Hall satisfied with D-backs’ buying and selling We’ve always known athletes want to play in Phoenix. Now athletes want to play for Bruce Arians. Athletes love talking to a football player and Keim is that player. Steve Keim isn’t terribly far removed from his playing days. He speaks to the players the way they want to be spoken to. He’s not so old that he’s some suit in an office, but he’s experienced enough that his youthful mistakes are out of the way.He evaluates talent well. He negotiates well. He recruits well. He manages a staff well. What other criteria is left for a good GM?Seattle and San Francisco are still the class of the division. That doesn’t change until it’s proven on the field. Never forget, however, the Cardinals are only one season removed from their third straight year with a six-game losing streak. That was the last year of Steve Keim not in his current position as general manager. Since then, he’s 2-0 in offseasons. All morning I’m thinking nothing will take me away from college basketball. This is my time to do nothing but do what I love. Baseball and college basketball.Then the Cardinals strike. Antonio Cromartie and Patrick Peterson are in the same defensive backfield.It’s not just the signing that makes Steve Keim impressive as a GM, it’s the way he goes about it. Any GM could have thrown enough cash at Cromartie to get him to jump. Keim uses leverage and recruiting at the same time, which seems to be impossible. Grace expects Greinke trade to have emotional impactlast_img read more